Tuesday, July 14, 2020

A Step-By-Step Guide to Building a Knowledge Map - Focus

A Step-By-Step Guide to Building a Knowledge Map - Focus A knowledge map is a powerful tool for communities and organizations to capture and share their most valuable asset: intellectual capital. In the first article of this knowledge mapping series, I provided an introduction to knowledge managementâ€"its benefits and best practices. In this article, I will share why and how to build a knowledge map, plus some concepts to consider when doing so. Table of Contents: What is a Knowledge Map? What Are the Benefits of Knowledge Mapping? How to Build a Knowledge Map Knowledge Mapping Best Practices An Everyday Example of Finding Knowledge Using a Knowledge Map What is a Knowledge Map? A knowledge map is a visual, like the example above, that shows where knowledge can be found within a company or organization. It includes knowledge rather than information, and that knowledge is accessed rather than searched for. Here’s some information explaining what those concepts mean. Knowledge vs. information The key to building a good knowledge map is to avoid unnecessary noise, and the best way to avoid noise is to have a clear definition of what qualifies as a knowledge asset and what does not. I like this definition from Davenport and Prusak: Knowledge is a high-value form of information that is ready to apply to decisions and actions, [and that] knowledge derives from information as information derives from data. This is extremely important, as I’ve often seen knowledge-sharing platforms suffering from an excess of information. This is damaging to the knowledge mapping initiative. Too much information becomes noise, and noise prevents people from accessing the most important content. Here is where the “knowledge asset” concept becomes important. For me, knowledge assets are minimum common denominators of knowledgeâ€"an atom if you like. They are actionable, productive units. I normally expect over 90% of knowledge assets to be produced as part of the normal team workflow. I like assets to be small and actionable. Those atoms are then added to the knowledge map for users to navigate and grab at will so they become the building material of their projects. Do not search for knowledge, access it In every meeting and workshop about knowledge management, I get the following question: “Shouldn’t we have a search field?” We are so used to searching for information that it comes as a surprise when searching for knowledge is discouraged. But knowledge should be accessed rather than searched for. When we search for knowledgeâ€"and if we are luckyâ€"the best thing that can happen is that we find what we’re looking for. When we access knowledge by navigating the knowledge map, we discover things we did not know existed. We also gain a quick understanding of what we know as a group, what we have available to us, and what we would like to have available to us but do not yet possess. Many of us have experienced varying levels of frustration when we complete a search in a database. Often the computer returns lists of 20 items or more with vaguely similar titles, forcing us to open file after file. I can assure you that searching is not faster than accessing. What Are the Benefits of Knowledge Mapping? Knowledge mapping helps organizations curate an experience for their employees/members when accessing their collective intelligence. The intellectual capital of the company can be quickly accessed by organizing the knowledge assets in a knowledge map. Knowledge maps are extremely intuitive, and they provide great platforms to showcase knowledge assets. Members of the team can navigate the different branches of the map, leading them to groups of assets and new maps. And most assets can be reached following different paths, as different people follow different thought processes. How to Build a Knowledge Map The image below belongs to the knowledge map for the preparation of the annual OuiShare Festival held in Barcelona. OuiShare is a think tank that focuses on collaborative consumption and the sharing economy. It is a community of 3,000 who get together around projects. In our case study, we’re focusing on the OuiShare Fest BCN. OuiShare Fest is an annual three-day conference for around 700 attendees, held in Barcelona. Organizing the festival involves around 30 people working at different degrees of intensity over a few months. The work is divided into a series of departments, but for this example, we’ll focus on the work of the Sponsors team. The Sponsors team is made up of four members, and only one of us was involved in the preparation of last year’s conference. Already here we identify a key element for our knowledge management initiative: institutional memory. When we start capturing knowledge assets, we should pay special attention to doing it in such a way that it will be easy to find and reuse by next year’s Sponsors team. With this case study in mind, here is our step-by-step guide for creating a knowledge map for both planning and long-term knowledge acquisition purposes. Step 1. Identify your knowledge map topic During the team’s first meeting, we would go ahead and open a brand new mind map within our knowledge-mapping tool of choice: MindMeister. We name it “Sponsors.” This will be the domain for all of the knowledge associated with dealing with sponsors, and we expect the other teams to do the same with their domains. For the time being, we will focus on only working on our map, and at a later stage, we will start connecting this knowledge with other maps. Step 2. Prepare your first assets You can begin adding assets to your mind map before you’ve even started a project. In our first meeting on gathering sponsors, for example, we could already define some of the things that we expect we’d be doing soon. We can imagine that at some point we’ll be delivering a presentation to the potential sponsors. The presentation will explain what OuiShare is, what the conference is about, and why they should partner with us. For this, we could start by adding a topic to the map and calling it “First Presentation to Sponsors.” This is our first knowledge asset. We can always change this name in the future, but for now, this serves as a reminder for us to prepare for these inevitable presentations for sponsors. Let’s now find a few more assets that we predict we’ll be needing: Assuming that the sponsor finds our idea interesting, we will be asked to submit a proposal. In this, we’ll describe in detail the value we offer and the amount of money we’d be asking for. If the sponsor likes our proposal, we will then have to have a contract, or an agreement, between the parties. And once the agreement is in place, we will then start delivering that value to the sponsors, whatever that is. For the time being, we will call that asset “Activities with the Sponsors.” Step 3. Capture the first knowledge asset We have a list of sponsors from the previous edition, plus a list of companies we have shortlisted but have not met yet. The first thing we do is draft the email to sponsors. In this email, we introduce ourselves and propose a meeting to tell them about the festival and opportunities available for potential sponsors. So this is the first knowledge asset we’ve actually produced: the introductory email. This is an asset we had not originally anticipated in the map but that we now believe is worth including. As different people on the team will be reaching out to potential sponsorsâ€"including the teams of future editionsâ€"it’s worth capturing and sharing. Note that we are not producing knowledge assets for the sake of producing them. We are doing our normal daily work, and we capture those assets as they become available. We, therefore, go to the map and choose where to add the asset. As we believe it fits with the group of activities related to “Approaching Sponsors,” we decide to rearrange our topics slightly. As you can see in the below image, we have created a new branch called “Approaching Sponsors.” We’ve also moved the “Introductory Email” and the “First Presentation to Sponsors” to inside that topic. This example shows how versatile mind mapping can be when it comes to rearranging knowledge. Step 4. Attach knowledge via documents or Google Docs Now that we have a place for the “Introductory Email,” we only have to save a copy of the template email in the “OuiShare Knowledge Map” folder. If using Google Docs, simply change the sharing settings so that your relevant team members can collaborate and add their suggestions. Once you have this shareable link, simply copy and paste the link into the relevant topic within your mind map. This can be done via the URL feature in the sidebar, as highlighted below. Step 5. If needed, add your asset to other locations Some assets do not belong only in one domain. For instance, when the time came to prepare the first presentation, one key asset we used was the “General OuiShare Fest BCN” presentation, prepared by the general coordinator. By using the general presentation as the basis for our work, we not only save time, but we also ensure consistency throughout the entire team. Yet again, we adapted the knowledge map to reflect this: This asset, “General Presentation,” is the perfect example of an asset that is present in many different domains, not only in “Sponsors.” This is extremely valuable since this is the best way to make sure that everybody in the team has the latest version of it. Any time you capture an asset, spend a couple of minutes thinking in which other areas of the maps it should be present, too. Step 6. Connect your different domains As we discussed in our introduction to knowledge management, mind maps allow us to create an ontological navigation of the different knowledge domains. In our example, there are a couple of designers working on the branding and design of the conference. They too develop knowledge maps to capture useful knowledge, and this “Design Resources” knowledge map is used across the entire team. This is an extremely valuable domain, as we’re all accountable for producing material to send out to sponsors, speakers, the press, etc. For this reason, we (the Sponsors team) have added a topic on our knowledge map that leads directly to the “Design Resources” mind map. Step 7. Make your knowledge available remotely At OuiShare, we work entirely via the cloud for projects, communications, governance, and sharing knowledge. For this reason, MindMeister is the best-suited mind mapping platform to capture and share our collective knowledge. MindMeister is entirely cloud-based and geared up for collaboration. The administrator has set up the whole team on the MindMeister team/members environment. We can, therefore, access the shared knowledge whether we’re in the office or working remotely. Build Your First Knowledge MapAnd start capturing knowledge assets. Sign up for free Its free! Sign up for free We use G Suite for our project management and file storage, again available via the cloud. For this, we’ve created a dedicated folder called “OuiShare Knowledge Map” containing all knowledge assets. The files are then shared in their respective mind maps via the shareable links (as shown above). Since we’ll be sharing the knowledge maps with other members of the organization and external users, we provide the relevant individuals with permission to edit. This is done via the sharing settings on the MindMeister lower toolbar. Everyone will then receive an email alerting them and including a link to access and edit the mind map. Knowledge Mapping Best Practices Here are a couple of best practices to keep in mind when creating your knowledge map. Organize your knowledge assets around knowledge domains There are hundreds of knowledge assets in every community and every organization. The first piece of advice when building the knowledge map for your organization is to not try and capture all of your knowledge assets into one single mind map. When you and your colleagues start creating your collective knowledge, you should be thinking of it as domains of knowledge. You can then dedicate one mind map to each of these domains. A domain is just a group of assets that share a particular area. It’s important to note that one given asset could be present in a number of domains. This is a key characteristic of an ontology when compared to a taxonomy. In the OuiShare example above, Sponsors has its own dedicated map. Other domains include “Branding,” “Production,” “Programme,” and “Volunteers.” Different members of the organization will specialize in one or two domains. These team members will develop a feeling of ownership over these domains, which is more important than it sounds since company culture is the main obstacle for any knowledge management initiative. Build your knowledge map so anyone can use it Keep in mind that anyone in your organization may come to your domain’s knowledge map in search of useful and actionable information. While you create the mind map, try to create an experience for those visitors. I strongly recommend that if you start getting a long list of topics, consider grouping them as subtopics. We often feel more comfortable with groups of no more than six or seven elements. An Everyday Example of Finding Knowledge Using a Knowledge Map Now that I’ve shown you how to create a knowledge map with MindMeister, I want to share an everyday example of how using a knowledge map for knowledge curation increases the quality of our work and saves us a lot of time. My colleague Luis from Ouishare in Madrid had a meeting with TeamLabs, an organization that is revolutionizing higher education. We have been friends with TeamLabs for quite a while, doing things here and there, but we still haven’t done proper work together. That day, Luis was exploring how we could collaborate. The meeting went well and they agreed on the next steps. In that meeting, the client thought that Ouishare could host a series of workshops for their students on topics about, roughly speaking, the future of organizations. Luis agreed to submit the following materials: Specific topics for the workshops What are the benefits for the students? How do our workshops relate to TeamLabs’ philosophy? Relevant experience and testimonials Luis needed to put together one excellent PDF with those bits and pieces and ideally submit it in less than 24 hours. 80% of the work was already done Some may disagree with me here, but I can’t remember any task or project where 80% of the work hadn’t already been done before. I normally find that my work consists of combining available assets, cleanly and quickly, so I can dedicate 80% of my time to that 20% of the work that makes a difference. In this example, Luis needs to focus on the question of “How do our workshops relate to TeamLabs philosophy?” This is the most valuable question for our potential client. Luis needs to look into the details of their courses and make sure that what we propose makes sense and adds value. Everything else (the topics, references, and benefits) are secondary and should be put together quickly. The diagram above tries to be a cake. While needed, of course, the body of the cake is not as valuable as the icing. We manage knowledge so that we spend most of our effort and time on the icingâ€"whatever truly provides value. Finding the pieces to build the cake using our knowledge map We capture and share our knowledge with MindMeister and share it with everybody, fully open source. You can access it yourself here. Navigating the knowledge map, Luis reaches the domain of “Masterclasses.” In there, he finds the one-pagers that describe the different workshops, something that he was specifically looking for. Incidentally, he also realizes there is an area for “People Bios and CVs” and thinks this could also be useful to show the client the type of facilitators that could provide the workshops. Showing our mix of people is a good way to show how we fit with their program (the icing on the cake). In the documentation for each workshop, there is a section listing the benefits for the attendees. Great! That covers the second part. Luis finds a basic presentation that makes sense for this opportunity, where he also finds the testimonials. Incidentally, he discovers the work that our colleague in Austria did for a design university in Switzerland. I can’t stress enough how important these types of connections are! By navigating the knowledge maps, Luis was able to: Put together 80% of the document in less than 30 minutes. Discover assets he did not know existed that will help him with the icing on the cake. Discover someone doing something really cool. Invest the following two hours creating something that made a lot of sense for the client’s needs. Get Started Capturing Your Knowledge with a Knowledge Map By now, you know what a knowledge map is, why it’s important, how it can be used by people in your organization every day to save time, and how to build a knowledge map. To recap, the steps are: Identify your knowledge map topic. Identify your first assets in the map (even if you don’t have them yet). Capture the knowledge assets as they become available. Attach those assets to the map. Copy the assets wherever you see fit. Connect your different domains. Make your knowledge available remotely. The most important task of all is to maintain awareness. In our daily work, we are continuously generating material that is useful and worth capturing. If your team captures and shares those assets as they’re created, capturing collective knowledge will become a great deal easier. Originally published in November 2016, this post has been updated to consolidate two posts into one and to add a new case study highlighting the benefits of using a knowledge map to find information quickly and easily. Build Your First Knowledge MapAnd start capturing knowledge assets. Sign up for free Its free! Sign up for free A Step-By-Step Guide to Building a Knowledge Map - Focus A knowledge map is a powerful tool for communities and organizations to capture and share their most valuable asset: intellectual capital. In the first article of this knowledge mapping series, I provided an introduction to knowledge managementâ€"its benefits and best practices. In this article, I will share why and how to build a knowledge map, plus some concepts to consider when doing so. Table of Contents: What is a Knowledge Map? What Are the Benefits of Knowledge Mapping? How to Build a Knowledge Map Knowledge Mapping Best Practices An Everyday Example of Finding Knowledge Using a Knowledge Map What is a Knowledge Map? A knowledge map is a visual, like the example above, that shows where knowledge can be found within a company or organization. It includes knowledge rather than information, and that knowledge is accessed rather than searched for. Here’s some information explaining what those concepts mean. Knowledge vs. information The key to building a good knowledge map is to avoid unnecessary noise, and the best way to avoid noise is to have a clear definition of what qualifies as a knowledge asset and what does not. I like this definition from Davenport and Prusak: Knowledge is a high-value form of information that is ready to apply to decisions and actions, [and that] knowledge derives from information as information derives from data. This is extremely important, as I’ve often seen knowledge-sharing platforms suffering from an excess of information. This is damaging to the knowledge mapping initiative. Too much information becomes noise, and noise prevents people from accessing the most important content. Here is where the “knowledge asset” concept becomes important. For me, knowledge assets are minimum common denominators of knowledgeâ€"an atom if you like. They are actionable, productive units. I normally expect over 90% of knowledge assets to be produced as part of the normal team workflow. I like assets to be small and actionable. Those atoms are then added to the knowledge map for users to navigate and grab at will so they become the building material of their projects. Do not search for knowledge, access it In every meeting and workshop about knowledge management, I get the following question: “Shouldn’t we have a search field?” We are so used to searching for information that it comes as a surprise when searching for knowledge is discouraged. But knowledge should be accessed rather than searched for. When we search for knowledgeâ€"and if we are luckyâ€"the best thing that can happen is that we find what we’re looking for. When we access knowledge by navigating the knowledge map, we discover things we did not know existed. We also gain a quick understanding of what we know as a group, what we have available to us, and what we would like to have available to us but do not yet possess. Many of us have experienced varying levels of frustration when we complete a search in a database. Often the computer returns lists of 20 items or more with vaguely similar titles, forcing us to open file after file. I can assure you that searching is not faster than accessing. What Are the Benefits of Knowledge Mapping? Knowledge mapping helps organizations curate an experience for their employees/members when accessing their collective intelligence. The intellectual capital of the company can be quickly accessed by organizing the knowledge assets in a knowledge map. Knowledge maps are extremely intuitive, and they provide great platforms to showcase knowledge assets. Members of the team can navigate the different branches of the map, leading them to groups of assets and new maps. And most assets can be reached following different paths, as different people follow different thought processes. How to Build a Knowledge Map The image below belongs to the knowledge map for the preparation of the annual OuiShare Festival held in Barcelona. OuiShare is a think tank that focuses on collaborative consumption and the sharing economy. It is a community of 3,000 who get together around projects. In our case study, we’re focusing on the OuiShare Fest BCN. OuiShare Fest is an annual three-day conference for around 700 attendees, held in Barcelona. Organizing the festival involves around 30 people working at different degrees of intensity over a few months. The work is divided into a series of departments, but for this example, we’ll focus on the work of the Sponsors team. The Sponsors team is made up of four members, and only one of us was involved in the preparation of last year’s conference. Already here we identify a key element for our knowledge management initiative: institutional memory. When we start capturing knowledge assets, we should pay special attention to doing it in such a way that it will be easy to find and reuse by next year’s Sponsors team. With this case study in mind, here is our step-by-step guide for creating a knowledge map for both planning and long-term knowledge acquisition purposes. Step 1. Identify your knowledge map topic During the team’s first meeting, we would go ahead and open a brand new mind map within our knowledge-mapping tool of choice: MindMeister. We name it “Sponsors.” This will be the domain for all of the knowledge associated with dealing with sponsors, and we expect the other teams to do the same with their domains. For the time being, we will focus on only working on our map, and at a later stage, we will start connecting this knowledge with other maps. Step 2. Prepare your first assets You can begin adding assets to your mind map before you’ve even started a project. In our first meeting on gathering sponsors, for example, we could already define some of the things that we expect we’d be doing soon. We can imagine that at some point we’ll be delivering a presentation to the potential sponsors. The presentation will explain what OuiShare is, what the conference is about, and why they should partner with us. For this, we could start by adding a topic to the map and calling it “First Presentation to Sponsors.” This is our first knowledge asset. We can always change this name in the future, but for now, this serves as a reminder for us to prepare for these inevitable presentations for sponsors. Let’s now find a few more assets that we predict we’ll be needing: Assuming that the sponsor finds our idea interesting, we will be asked to submit a proposal. In this, we’ll describe in detail the value we offer and the amount of money we’d be asking for. If the sponsor likes our proposal, we will then have to have a contract, or an agreement, between the parties. And once the agreement is in place, we will then start delivering that value to the sponsors, whatever that is. For the time being, we will call that asset “Activities with the Sponsors.” Step 3. Capture the first knowledge asset We have a list of sponsors from the previous edition, plus a list of companies we have shortlisted but have not met yet. The first thing we do is draft the email to sponsors. In this email, we introduce ourselves and propose a meeting to tell them about the festival and opportunities available for potential sponsors. So this is the first knowledge asset we’ve actually produced: the introductory email. This is an asset we had not originally anticipated in the map but that we now believe is worth including. As different people on the team will be reaching out to potential sponsorsâ€"including the teams of future editionsâ€"it’s worth capturing and sharing. Note that we are not producing knowledge assets for the sake of producing them. We are doing our normal daily work, and we capture those assets as they become available. We, therefore, go to the map and choose where to add the asset. As we believe it fits with the group of activities related to “Approaching Sponsors,” we decide to rearrange our topics slightly. As you can see in the below image, we have created a new branch called “Approaching Sponsors.” We’ve also moved the “Introductory Email” and the “First Presentation to Sponsors” to inside that topic. This example shows how versatile mind mapping can be when it comes to rearranging knowledge. Step 4. Attach knowledge via documents or Google Docs Now that we have a place for the “Introductory Email,” we only have to save a copy of the template email in the “OuiShare Knowledge Map” folder. If using Google Docs, simply change the sharing settings so that your relevant team members can collaborate and add their suggestions. Once you have this shareable link, simply copy and paste the link into the relevant topic within your mind map. This can be done via the URL feature in the sidebar, as highlighted below. Step 5. If needed, add your asset to other locations Some assets do not belong only in one domain. For instance, when the time came to prepare the first presentation, one key asset we used was the “General OuiShare Fest BCN” presentation, prepared by the general coordinator. By using the general presentation as the basis for our work, we not only save time, but we also ensure consistency throughout the entire team. Yet again, we adapted the knowledge map to reflect this: This asset, “General Presentation,” is the perfect example of an asset that is present in many different domains, not only in “Sponsors.” This is extremely valuable since this is the best way to make sure that everybody in the team has the latest version of it. Any time you capture an asset, spend a couple of minutes thinking in which other areas of the maps it should be present, too. Step 6. Connect your different domains As we discussed in our introduction to knowledge management, mind maps allow us to create an ontological navigation of the different knowledge domains. In our example, there are a couple of designers working on the branding and design of the conference. They too develop knowledge maps to capture useful knowledge, and this “Design Resources” knowledge map is used across the entire team. This is an extremely valuable domain, as we’re all accountable for producing material to send out to sponsors, speakers, the press, etc. For this reason, we (the Sponsors team) have added a topic on our knowledge map that leads directly to the “Design Resources” mind map. Step 7. Make your knowledge available remotely At OuiShare, we work entirely via the cloud for projects, communications, governance, and sharing knowledge. For this reason, MindMeister is the best-suited mind mapping platform to capture and share our collective knowledge. MindMeister is entirely cloud-based and geared up for collaboration. The administrator has set up the whole team on the MindMeister team/members environment. We can, therefore, access the shared knowledge whether we’re in the office or working remotely. Build Your First Knowledge MapAnd start capturing knowledge assets. Sign up for free Its free! Sign up for free We use G Suite for our project management and file storage, again available via the cloud. For this, we’ve created a dedicated folder called “OuiShare Knowledge Map” containing all knowledge assets. The files are then shared in their respective mind maps via the shareable links (as shown above). Since we’ll be sharing the knowledge maps with other members of the organization and external users, we provide the relevant individuals with permission to edit. This is done via the sharing settings on the MindMeister lower toolbar. Everyone will then receive an email alerting them and including a link to access and edit the mind map. Knowledge Mapping Best Practices Here are a couple of best practices to keep in mind when creating your knowledge map. Organize your knowledge assets around knowledge domains There are hundreds of knowledge assets in every community and every organization. The first piece of advice when building the knowledge map for your organization is to not try and capture all of your knowledge assets into one single mind map. When you and your colleagues start creating your collective knowledge, you should be thinking of it as domains of knowledge. You can then dedicate one mind map to each of these domains. A domain is just a group of assets that share a particular area. It’s important to note that one given asset could be present in a number of domains. This is a key characteristic of an ontology when compared to a taxonomy. In the OuiShare example above, Sponsors has its own dedicated map. Other domains include “Branding,” “Production,” “Programme,” and “Volunteers.” Different members of the organization will specialize in one or two domains. These team members will develop a feeling of ownership over these domains, which is more important than it sounds since company culture is the main obstacle for any knowledge management initiative. Build your knowledge map so anyone can use it Keep in mind that anyone in your organization may come to your domain’s knowledge map in search of useful and actionable information. While you create the mind map, try to create an experience for those visitors. I strongly recommend that if you start getting a long list of topics, consider grouping them as subtopics. We often feel more comfortable with groups of no more than six or seven elements. An Everyday Example of Finding Knowledge Using a Knowledge Map Now that I’ve shown you how to create a knowledge map with MindMeister, I want to share an everyday example of how using a knowledge map for knowledge curation increases the quality of our work and saves us a lot of time. My colleague Luis from Ouishare in Madrid had a meeting with TeamLabs, an organization that is revolutionizing higher education. We have been friends with TeamLabs for quite a while, doing things here and there, but we still haven’t done proper work together. That day, Luis was exploring how we could collaborate. The meeting went well and they agreed on the next steps. In that meeting, the client thought that Ouishare could host a series of workshops for their students on topics about, roughly speaking, the future of organizations. Luis agreed to submit the following materials: Specific topics for the workshops What are the benefits for the students? How do our workshops relate to TeamLabs’ philosophy? Relevant experience and testimonials Luis needed to put together one excellent PDF with those bits and pieces and ideally submit it in less than 24 hours. 80% of the work was already done Some may disagree with me here, but I can’t remember any task or project where 80% of the work hadn’t already been done before. I normally find that my work consists of combining available assets, cleanly and quickly, so I can dedicate 80% of my time to that 20% of the work that makes a difference. In this example, Luis needs to focus on the question of “How do our workshops relate to TeamLabs philosophy?” This is the most valuable question for our potential client. Luis needs to look into the details of their courses and make sure that what we propose makes sense and adds value. Everything else (the topics, references, and benefits) are secondary and should be put together quickly. The diagram above tries to be a cake. While needed, of course, the body of the cake is not as valuable as the icing. We manage knowledge so that we spend most of our effort and time on the icingâ€"whatever truly provides value. Finding the pieces to build the cake using our knowledge map We capture and share our knowledge with MindMeister and share it with everybody, fully open source. You can access it yourself here. Navigating the knowledge map, Luis reaches the domain of “Masterclasses.” In there, he finds the one-pagers that describe the different workshops, something that he was specifically looking for. Incidentally, he also realizes there is an area for “People Bios and CVs” and thinks this could also be useful to show the client the type of facilitators that could provide the workshops. Showing our mix of people is a good way to show how we fit with their program (the icing on the cake). In the documentation for each workshop, there is a section listing the benefits for the attendees. Great! That covers the second part. Luis finds a basic presentation that makes sense for this opportunity, where he also finds the testimonials. Incidentally, he discovers the work that our colleague in Austria did for a design university in Switzerland. I can’t stress enough how important these types of connections are! By navigating the knowledge maps, Luis was able to: Put together 80% of the document in less than 30 minutes. Discover assets he did not know existed that will help him with the icing on the cake. Discover someone doing something really cool. Invest the following two hours creating something that made a lot of sense for the client’s needs. Get Started Capturing Your Knowledge with a Knowledge Map By now, you know what a knowledge map is, why it’s important, how it can be used by people in your organization every day to save time, and how to build a knowledge map. To recap, the steps are: Identify your knowledge map topic. Identify your first assets in the map (even if you don’t have them yet). Capture the knowledge assets as they become available. Attach those assets to the map. Copy the assets wherever you see fit. Connect your different domains. Make your knowledge available remotely. The most important task of all is to maintain awareness. In our daily work, we are continuously generating material that is useful and worth capturing. If your team captures and shares those assets as they’re created, capturing collective knowledge will become a great deal easier. Originally published in November 2016, this post has been updated to consolidate two posts into one and to add a new case study highlighting the benefits of using a knowledge map to find information quickly and easily. Build Your First Knowledge MapAnd start capturing knowledge assets. Sign up for free Its free! Sign up for free

Thursday, May 21, 2020

An iconic feminist figure Frida Kahlo - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 843 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2019/08/02 Category Art Essay Level High school Tags: Frida Kahlo Essay Did you like this example? Frida Kahlo, daughter of a German descendant father named Guillermo and a half Amerindian and half Spanish mother named Matilde was born and raised in Coyoacà ¡n, Mexico. Frida was in poor health conditions during her childhood. At the age of six, she contracted polio due to this disease she was in bed rest for a period of nine months. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "An iconic feminist figure Frida Kahlo" essay for you Create order This disease did not only have her on bed rest but, also caused her right leg to be much thinner than her left one. Throughout her life, she wore long skirts to hide the fact that she was a carrier of the polio disease. However, she overcame the polio disease since her father encouraged her to play sports such as soccer, swimming and also wrestling which was very ironic for a girl (Editors, 2014). In late 1925, she commenced her artistic career with her painting Self-portrait in a Velvet Dress after she was in a tragic accident on September 17th which involved a school friend named Alejandro Gomez Arias, whom she had a romantic relationship with (Editors, 2014). In this accident, the bus driver collided with a car, which resulted in a steel handrail go through her hip and out. This tragic injury caused her severe injuries which resulted in fractures in her spine and pelvis, due to this accident Frida could no longer have children of her own. Throughout this academic research paper, I will be discussing Fridas pieces of artwork which I find interesting and what certain things symbolize in her artwork. Also, a comparison between her artwork and the artwork of other artists during her time period. Besides that, she is one of Mexicos greatest artist and an iconic feminist figure throughout the globe. An artwork which I found interesting was the double self-portrait she painted in 1939 during her divorce with Diego Rivera. This 68 by 68 oil on canvas self-portrait named The Two Fridas, interpreted her emotional pain experiences due to her divorce with Diego as stated earlier. According to Amy Stechler, the movie producer of The Life and Times of Frida Kahlo, there are specific main points which symbolize sadness and change in this artwork. In this self-portrait, Frida on the left is wearing a white European dress which indicates the new Frida whom Diego does not love anymore and shows her heritage which she inherits from both of her parents. The blood stains on her white dress are indications of everything that has to happen to her throughout her life such as surgeries, miscarriages and the mentally and emotionally loss of Diego. The Frida on the right who is wearing a traditional Mexican blouse and skirt symbolizes the Frida who is still in love with Diego. In this artwork, Frida on the right is holding a locket with a picture of Diego which represents how close she and Diego were Frida did not only see Diego as her lover but her child also. After Frida Kahlo died, this artifact was found in her possession and is now an artifact in the Museo Frida Kahlos Collection (Stechler, 2005). There were two other pieces of artwork which I found interesting they were two other self-portraits she titled Self-Portrait With Loose Hair and Self-portrait at the Border Between Mexico and the US. In the self-portrait in which she titled Self-Portrait With Loose Hair, she utilized the oil paint as her medium. The purpose I personally found this self-portrait interesting was because she barely painted self-portraits of herself with her hair loose. Her hair in this artwork was the main focal point since her long beautiful silky hair was her husband Diego Riveras admiration. There is also a script that she wrote on the painting in Spanish which translates as Here I painted myself I, Frida Kahlo, with my reflection on the mirror. I am thirty-seven years old y it is July of the year 1947. In Coyoacà ¡n, Mexico, the site where I was born in English. This artwork also seems to be a piece of artwork which reinforces her identity as a human since it mentions information about her. The last artwork which I admire is the self-portrait she titled Self-portrait at the Border Between Mexico and the US this portrait was based off when Diego was given an opportunity in working in the US, so both Frida and Diego migrated to the US which they ended up staying for approximately three years. However, Diego was enjoying his new life but Frida was not emotionally feeling the same as Diego did she truly missed her traditional Mexican roots where she came from. This painting has Frida Kahlo in the center, between the borderlines of Mexico and the US wearing a pink dress and holding a Mexico flag. The Mexico flag symbolizes loyalty, her loyalty and her love for her country Mexico. The factories and skyscrapers in the background represent the US side which symbolizes industrialization due to the new technological advancements. The left side of her painting includes vibrant colors and an Aztec site which represents her traditional roots from where she was born and raised.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Utopia And Leviathan - 2186 Words

Thomas MoresUtopia and Thomas Hobbes Leviathan each offer alternatives to the worlds in which they lived.. Mores society, viewed through the character Hythloday, is seemingly based on mans nature in society being generally good, and the faults of man emanate from how society itself is set up. Hobbes takes the opposite view of human nature, where mans will to survive makes him unable to act out of goodness and it is man who is responsible for societys ills. Both Leviathan and Utopia contain faults in logic that work to undermine the very possibility for these new social structures. In the following I will show how each of their views for a new society give insight into what their beliefs of human nature are, while showing some†¦show more content†¦Close inspection of these rules give insight into how More may have really viewed human nature. In the following excerpts we find evidence that More may have found man untrustworthy and in need of social control, or at the very least spiritual control. The vast majority of Utopians  ¦ believe in a single power, unknown, eternal, infinite, inexplicable, far beyond the grasp of the human mind, and diffused throughout the universe, not physically but in influence. Him they call father, and to him alone they attribute the origin, increase, progress, change, and end of all visible things; they do not offer divine honors to any other.  ¦ (Utopus) left the whole matter (choosing a religion) open, allowing each person to choose what he would believe. The only exception was a positive and strict law against anyone who would sink so far below the dignity of human nature as to think that the soul perishes with the body, or that the universe is ruled by blind chance, not divine providence.  ¦ Therefore a man who holds such views is offered no honors, entrusted with no offices, and given no public responsibility, he is universally regarded as a low and sordid fellowï ¿ ½ (pp.516-518 This excerpt shows the ambivalence that More has about human nature. He sees man as essentially good but whenever an individual has ideas of their own they are regarded as inferior. This creates anotherShow MoreRelated Comparing Mores Utopia, Machiavellis The Discourses, and Hobbes The Leviathan2608 Words   |  11 PagesRelationship Between the Sovereign and the Subjects in  Mores Utopia, Machiavellis The Discourses, and Hobbes The Leviathan  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚      Thomas More, Niccolo Machiavelli, and Thomas Hobbes offer models for the relationship between the sovereign and the people in their works Utopia, The Discourses, and The Leviathan. Each argues that ensuring the common good of the people should be the primary goal of the sovereign. However, they differ in the specifics of their descriptions of this relationshipRead MorePersonal Freedom in Leviathan and Candide Essay1621 Words   |  7 PagesThe basis of Leviathan relies upon a theoretical readjustment of the state of social affairs. Candide, on the other hand, is that state of social affairs. Whereas Hobbess Leviathan relates that of how the state of human nature can be changed and adapted to a desirable social order, Voltaires Candide shows the difficulty of being within the sorry state of the human experience. But where does the concept of personal freedom come into play within these two basic premises? And how can a personRead MorePolitical Philosophy And The Natural Law856 Wo rds   |  4 Pagesthe commonwealth requires individuals to abdicate themselves to what is known as Leviathan – a â€Å"coercive power compelling individuals to live by their covenant or so-called contract.† (Personal Liberty, 383) Additionally, Hobbes believed that people are not innately or socially altruistic – sympathetic towards another being. (Personal Liberty, 401) He believed that people were driven by egoistic desires and the Leviathan will help individuals achieve their egoistic goals. Although Hobbes’s theory mayRead MoreThe Social Contract : Hobbes Vs. Rousseau1457 Words   |  6 Pagesfreedoms to the government in return for protection of their remaining rights. Throughout history, there have been a number of philosophers that have discussed the social contract and each philosopher has had there own social contract theories. Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes was the foundation for social contract theory in Western political philosophy. While The S ocial Contract by Jean-Jacques Rousseau was written a century later and inspired political reforms in Europe. Both Hobbes and Rousseau in theirRead More Human Nature as Viewed by Thomas Hobbes and David Hume Essay example1948 Words   |  8 PagesHuman Nature as Viewed by Thomas Hobbes and David Hume Thomas Hobbes in Chapter 13 of Leviathan, and David Hume in Section 3 of An Enquiry Concerning the Princples of Morals, give views of human nature. Hobbes’ view captures survivalism as significant in our nature but cannot account for altruism. We cover Hobbes’ theory with a theory of Varied Levels of Survivalism, explaining a larger body of behavior with the foundation Hobbes gives. Hume gives a scenario which does not directly proveRead MoreIs Thomas More s Utopia?1374 Words   |  6 PagesThomas More’s Utopia is a work of fiction that explores the idea of the commonwealth of Utopia as an ideal society both governmentally and productively. Later thinkers delved deeper into the questions of society, looking at why people enter societies, what type of governments are most successful, and distribution of wealth among the population. Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Adam Smith, and Karl Marx all had varying thoughts on how to achieve social order in the societies in which they lived. Their differingRead MoreAnalysis Of Alan Moores Watchmen 1482 Words   |  6 Pagessocial agreement, it would represent a utopia: One in which each man holds the same values and ideologies of those of his neighbor, resulting in a truly peaceful, conflict free, and perfect society. In this paper, I posit that Alan Moore’s â€Å"Watchmen† critiques the possibility of such a utopia existing, arguing that while all states seek to achieve complete social agreement, inevitable irreconcilable conflicting ideologies amongst a state’s citizens make utopia an impossible goal, and eventually precipitateRead MoreHobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Machiavelli Essay1855 Words   |  8 Pagesthis can be seen in his writings concerning morality. He saw the Judeo-Christian values as faulty in the states success. Such visionary expectations, he held, bring the state to ruin, for we do not live in the world of the ought, the fanciful utopia, but in the world of is. The princes role was not to promote virtue, but to insure security. He reasoned that the Judeo-Christian values would make a ruler week if he actually possessed them, but that they could be useful in dealing with theRead MoreEssay on Going Green in the Home1671 Words   |  7 Pagesmotive has thus the effect of developments that have been initiated with an attempt to ensure a reverse of the situation. Such a world where nature is in unison with the environment is like the one depicted by Sir Thomas More in his 1516 book Utopia. Utopia was depicted to be an island; a fictional one though in the Atlantic Ocean that had an ideal society, as the creator of the fiction depicted the world ought to be, universally. Such a state, as was first proposed by Plato in his book, RepublicRead MoreLiberalism And The Ethical And Logical Level Essay1332 Words   |  6 Pagesfundamental contradictions and issues in Liberalism is the question of the power and neutrality of the state. Liberal neutrality can be understood as the idea that a neoliberal state should not promote any specific concept of perfectionism, social utopia or the ‘’good’’. This is concept is often used in critiques of multiculturalism and collective rights movements. We will be discussing the theories of some liberal authors such as John Rawls, Locke, Mill, Nozick, and Waldron among others whose philosophies

Iraq iran war of 1980 †major facts Free Essays

Key Dates Context – Iraq 13 Millions inhabitants Saddam Hussein is still contested in his own parti by A1 Bakr supporters and with Islamic revolution in Iran, Shiis start a revolt in 1979. 1st military power in the region. Arabs = 75%, Kurds = 17%, perstan 2%. We will write a custom essay sample on Iraq iran war of 1980 – major facts or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2/2 Sunni, 1/2 Shii and 3% of minority (christians, Jews,†¦ ) Economic dependency on oil. Others sectors were developping. Baasist regim since 1968 and the second â€Å"coup d’ ©tat† (1st in 1963). July 1979, Saddam Hussein finally take supreme power after the ‘elimination’ of his cousin Hassan A1 Bakr, former Iraq president. Context – Iran 35 Million inhabitants Islamic regim after the 1979 revolution Persian = 61 %, Azeris = 16%, Kurds = 90% Shii, 9% Sunni, 1% non muslim (Christians, Jew, Zoroastrians). Economic dependency to oil (79% of government revenues). Others sectors are badly developped. But still contested. Weakness of military forces due to purges of new regims. Religious differences – Sunni / Shii Had split in 661 after the assassination of All, the 4th Caliph and especially the nephew and son in law of Muhamad as the first one who have convert himself to Islam. Political differences at start. Shii thinks the Caliph should be a descendant of Ali and o Muhamad to have the prophete blood. Sunni gives the caliphate to the best muslim. Religion practice also differs. For Shii, they think Caliphs and Imams can interpret the coran. For Sunni, interpretation. are not really accepted. There is also the 7 revealed / 7 hidden imman theory in Shiism. Today : 90% of Muslim are Sunni. In the 10th Century, 50% and the two main caliphate were ruled by Shii. Arabs / Persians Economic and Political stakes (Iraqi motivations) Shatt al Arab first reason of the conflict Geostrategic Waterway close to the Persian gulf. – Use to be Iraqi – Since the Alger agreements (1975) the two ountries share the area Iraqi wants to get back Shatt al Arab. The Saddam Hussein governmant (BAAS) is a lay party: Stop the Islamic expansion in the region. Factors leading to the War Iraqui political and economical motivations Iran is weakened because of the Islamic revolution Saddam feels invincible (30 days of war maximum) Ayatollah Rouhollah khomeini, Islamic revolution leader has bad relationship with Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein thinks that he has support within Iran (Socialist and non-revolutionary partisants) Saddam Hussein thinks that he has gulfs countries support Iranian Stakes for winning the war After having won 1% of the Iranian territory, Saddam strengthened his trust in winning the war and proposed a ceasefire. How to cite Iraq iran war of 1980 – major facts, Essays

Friday, April 24, 2020

To Kill A Mockingbird Childhood Experience Essay Example For Students

To Kill A Mockingbird: Childhood Experience Essay To Kill A Mockingbird: Childhood ExperienceHave you ever thought of an answer to reply to your children, when theyask you, What was the world like when you were a child?, What things thathappened that impressed you most when you were a child? or How interesting isyour childhood experience?. Everybody must have had their childhood. Some ofthe experiences may cause them to smile, or even laugh, while some of them maybring back bitter memories. It is always hard to express the childhoodincidents or experience in a clear and interesting way, since they were pastmemories that happened long time ago. Moreover, when a person has grown up,they will never have the same feeling which they might have in their childhood. We will write a custom essay on To Kill A Mockingbird: Childhood Experience specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now However, the authors Harper Lee and Mark Twain can express their own childhoodinside the stories they created, in a lively and realistic way. The two novelsTo Kill a Mockingbird and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer have a very similarcharacteristic. It is the way they describe a persons childhood experience,and their feelings and new knowledge that come out from those experiences. Thischaracteristic, however, has given me a big revelation after reading the twonovels. The novels show that the childhood experience of a person has a greatpositive influence on his personality, behaviour, and ways on dealing withothers. This idea has been shown by the authors in both novels. From the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, one could discover that innocentbehaviour and misunderstanding can lead a child to view a person or thingincorrectly and incompletely. This behaviour can also lead a child to a wrongperspective. In the first part of To Kill a Mockingbird, the main charactersScout, Jem, and Dill thought that the Radley family and their member, Boo Radley,as strange and unnatural human beings. They described Radleys house as Thatis a sad house. (Harper Lee, 48). This is a fact they heard from theirneighbours. Until one day, their neighbour Miss Maudies house was found onfire. While Scout was standing outside in the cold watching the fire, someonefrom behind her and put a blanket around her shoulders. Later, Scout and Jemrealized that there was only one person in town who had not fought to put outthe fire Boo Radley. Scout asked, Thank who?(Harper Lee, 76). Jem replied,Boo Radley. You were so busy looking at the fire you didnt know it when he putthe blanket around you.(Harper Lee, 76) It was then that Scout and Jem startedto realize that Boo Radley was basically a kind and normal person, and that hewas not a strange person as they thought at the beginning of the story. Thisincident proves that misunderstanding can bring a child into wrong perspectives,and that experience through time helps to solve the problem. There is alsoanother proof from the novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. In the story, themain character, Tom Sawyer, thought that school was a restriction to him andtherefore he decided to skip school and found his world of freedom from theforest and rivers. His aunt, Polly said, Didnt you want to go in a-swimming,Tom? (Mark Twain, 13) Afterwards, Aunt Polly tried to punish him for skippingschool by ordering him to wash a long, huge fence. However, this did not haveany effect on Tom. He continued to do what he thought was right skipsclasses. He did not seem to care why his aunt Polly punished him. This is,once again, another example t o show how innocent behaviour can lead a child tohave wrong perspective and behaviour. .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa , .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa .postImageUrl , .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa , .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa:hover , .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa:visited , .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa:active { border:0!important; } .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa:active , .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1c16f75cae19f1c99156e67e496c2ffa:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Brookdale Community College EssayAlthough it has been said that innocent behaviour usually leads a childinto the wrong path, there are still some exceptions. Having said that, itshould be remembered that the nature of a child really helps to develop his orher own positive personality and behaviour, together with their childhoodexperience. For example, in To Kill a Mockingbird, the character Scout, was asmart and clever girl. However, she did not get any close friends other thanher new friend Dill and her brother Jem, as seen from the story. From the scenewhere Scout argued and embarrassed Mr. Cunningham, her friend WalterCunninghams father, dissuading him from trying to ki ll Tom Robinson, one candiscover her talent in speaking and arguing with people. She said, Hey, Mr. Cunningham, hows your entailment gettin along? (Harper Lee, 155), remindingMr. Cunningham that Scouts father, Atticus, had once helped him with legalproblems. Scout continued to talk about young Walter, and how she once lent himmoney to buy lunch when the boy had nothing to eat. I go to school with Walter,hes your boy, aint he? (Harper Lee, 156) This kind of friendly talk made Mr. Cunningham ashamed and finally left the jail instead of killing Tom Robinson. This nature helped her to grow up and become more mature through the experiencesshe encountered throughout the whole plot. Another example can be found fromthe novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. In the story, Tom Sawyer was a typicalboy in his time. He was an imaginative, active, and smart boy. From theincident where he tried to use his clever technique to make other boys completethe punishment given out by Aunt Polly as mentioned in the previous paragraph,one can discover how smart and clever he was. Tom said, Oh you think you aremighty smart, dont you? I could lick you with one hand tied behind me, if Iwanted to. (Mark Twain, 15) showing his confidence in his own talent andknowledge. From the fact that he hated and skipped school all the time, he hadexperienced many unpredictable happenings that helped him to understand, tolearn more, and to develop his own perspective. After discussing how the innocent behaviour of a child and his ownnature may have positive influence on him, its now time to talk about the results that came out from their childhood experience. From the two novelsdiscussed in the previous paragraphs, the results can be seen clearly fromeither the characters in the story or the children nowadays. After they wentthrough a journey of maturity, they finally became young adults who wereresponsible, caring, and intelligent. Examples can be drawn from the novel ToKill a Mockingbird. After the two major incidents happened in the story, namely,the Boo Radley incident and Tom Robinsons Trial, the character Scout started torealize that how important it was to understand a person and to have toleranceamong people. Scout felt sympathy and grief after knowing the death of TomRobinson, because he had committed no crime. She realized why her fatherAtticus told her not to kill a mockingbird; its because it was a harmless birdand innocent of any wron g. Miss Maudie explained to the children, Mockingbirdsdont do one thing but sing their hearts out of us. (Harper Lee, 102) and thatitd be a sin to kill a Mockingbird. Scout knew that a bad person like BobEwell in the story, could attack people physically, but he had no real power tocontrol peoples minds. Another example can be found on The Adventures of TomSawyer. Tom Sawyer was scared after the scene of murder by Injun Joe in thecemetery. He then knew that Injun Joe was a very very bad person. He thereforestood up in the witness box to point out Injun Joes crime. Also, from the lastpart of the story, Toms care for his girlfriend, Becky, is evident. Tom tookcare of Becky when they were both in the cave. Becky felt she would die soonand made Tom promise that he would return to her and hold her hand when he couldfind a way out. She said, Can you find the way, Tom? Its all a mixed-upcrookedness to me. (Mark Twain, 191). Tom kissed her and tried to act brave ashe left her to try to find a way out of the cave. He grew even mature after allthese bitter and unpleasant experiences. .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8 , .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8 .postImageUrl , .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8 , .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8:hover , .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8:visited , .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8:active { border:0!important; } .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8:active , .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8 .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5c5f08d19b5537760666cfe81ccdafe8:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Gun Control Good Or Bad EssaySometimes it is very hard to find out why the childhood experience of aperson has a formative, or even a great positive influence, on either theirpersonality, behaviour, and ways on dealing with others. The two novelsdiscussed above did give a very precise and clear answer to this question. However, to understand why this kind of experience may cause positive influenceon a child, one must not only look from their innocent behaviour and theirnature; other factors also count. It may be the era in which the child was born,or his family background, or may be the inherent personality of the child. Nobody except a psychologist may have a perfect solution to this question. Butone hard core can be declared, the above question is one of the ideas which flowout from the two novels To Kill a Mockingbird from Harper Lee, and TheAdventures of Tom Sawyer from Mark Twain. The two authors have done anexcellent job in proving the idea discussed above childhood experience of aperson has a positive influence on their perspectives and values. English

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Whither Mankind essays

Whither Mankind essays In "Whither Mankind" Ayala make a distinction between negative and positive eugenics. He states that negative eugenics is a reasonable idea and agreeable by most individuals. On the other hand positive eugenics is a morally inconceivable idea with severe consequences. He describes how many of the procedures of positive eugenics are not biologically possible. One type of positive eugenics is germinal selection. In future paragraphs I will clarify why germinal selection is a form of positive eugenics, and the negative aspects of performing it. Finally I will discuss why Ayala at this point in time deems it is impossible to practice germinal selection. Eugenics is a deliberate attempt to improve the genetics of the human race. Implemented by humans, eugenics is an artificial manner of selection performed intentionally on their own species. There are two very different types of eugenics described by Ayala positive and negative eugenics. Positive eugenics is the increase of individuals or genotypes of individuals with desirable genetic makeup. While negative eugenics is merely trying to prevent the distribution of undesirable genes. Negative eugenics consists of methods such as genetic counseling and genetic surgery. Positive eugenics includes germinal selection and cloning. Dr. Ayala brings up many questions and concerns regarding civil rights when discussing positive eugenics. In our democratic world who will make decisions on what is best for the society? What characteristics are ideal? Ayala believes there is no such thing as a perfect genotype. In society today it is unrealistic to think a perfect genotype could be chosen with out violating civil rights. He says hypothetically if a decision could be made and these individuals chosen there are many reasons to doubt a positive outcome. One principal idea is the combination of parents. When combining gametes, one f ...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

How to Use It Depends in Conversation

How to Use It Depends in Conversation In conversation, it is not always possible to give a yes or no answer to a question about our opinion. Life is not always black or white! For example, imagine you are having a conversation about your study habits. Someone might ask you: Do you study hard? You might want to say: Yes, I study hard. However, that statement might not be 100% true. A more accurate answer might be: It depends on which subject Im studying. If Im studying English, then yes I study hard. If Im studying math, I dont always study hard. Of course, the answer, Yes, I study hard. might be truthful as well. Answering questions with it depends allows you to answer questions with more nuance. In other words, using it depends lets you say in which cases something is true and which cases false. There are a few different grammar forms involved when using it depends. Take a look at the following structures. Be sure to carefully note when to use It depends on ..., It depends if ..., It depends on how /what / which / where, etc., or simply It depends. Yes or No? It Depends The most simple answer is a sentence stating It depends. After this, you can follow up by stating yes and no conditions. In other words, the meaning of the phrase: It depends. If it is sunny - yes, but if it is rainy - no. It depends if the weather is good or not. Another common conversational reply to a yes / no question is It depends. Sometimes, yes. Sometimes, no. However, as you can imagine answering a question with this doesnt provide much information. Here is a short dialogue as an example: Mary: Do you enjoy playing golf?Jim: It depends. Sometimes yes, sometimes no. Answering the question with a more complete version provides more information: Mary: Do you enjoy playing golf?Jim: It depends. If I play well - yes, but if I play badly - no. It depends on noun / noun clause One of the most common ways to use it depends is with the preposition on. Be careful to not use another preposition! I sometimes hear It depends about... or It depends from ... these are both incorrect. Use It depends on with a noun or noun phrase, but not with a full clause. For example: Mary: Do you like Italian food?Jim: It depends on the restaurant. OR Mary: Do you like Italian food?Jim: It depends on the type of restaurant. It depends on how adjective subject verb A similar usage that takes a full clause is It depends on how plus an adjective followed by adjective and full clause. Remember that a full clause takes both the subject and verb. Here are a few examples: Mary: Are you lazy?Jim: It depends on how important the task is to me. Mary: Are you a good student?Jim: It depends on how difficult the class is. It depends on which / where / when / why / who subject verb Another similar use of It depends on is with questions words. Follow It depends on with a question word and a full clause. Here are a few examples: Mary: Are you usually on time?Jim: It depends on when I get up. Mary: Do you like buying gifts?Jim: It depends on who the gift is for. It depends if clause Finally, use it depends with an if clause to express conditions for whether something is true or not. Its common to end the if clause with or not.   Mary: Do you spend a lot of money?Jim: It depends if Im on vacation or not.